"... the party gave me everything I needed: power, rights, duties. This dictated to act decisively, to fulfill my duty with honor and dignity" (Dinmukhamed Kunaev, from the memoirs "From Stalin to Gorbachev"). "A very intelligent, tactful person. He never addressed "you" and was an excellent conversationalist. He possessed a rare quality - he knew how to listen ..." (Karl Moldakhmetovich Baipakov, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Professor, Director of the Institute of Archeology named after A. X. Margulan). "He knew how to impress people ... Thanks to him, our republic has always been allocated more funds than the rest ... I am with him in heart and soul" (Vasily Mitrofanovich Benberin, Hero of the Soviet Union). "... I have always faithfully served my people and will serve them until the last day" (Dinmukhamed Kunaev, from the memoirs "From Stalin to Gorbachev"). "Kunaev never lashed out.
I was always bribed by the fact that when discussing any case, he always listened to the opinion of specialists, and did not rely entirely on his knowledge "(Shota Edrisovich Valikhanov, one of the authors of the State Emblem and the Independence Monument of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as the bust of D. A. Kunaev). "Let the paper lie down, tomorrow it will be smarter" (Dinmukhamed Kunaev, from conversations with assistants about large and complex issues). "... It's high time to end with rainbow euphoria about the fact that the West or the East will help us, and in everything rely first on their own - and we have them, and considerable -forces, and only then on "imported" ones (Dinmukhamed Kunaev, from the memoirs "From Stalin to Gorbachev"). "I lived a long life, there was a lot of good in it, there was also bad. But this is my life. ... And in my life, as in any other, there were dark days, but I did not erase any of them from my memory At the same time, I do not regret anything and do not hold a grudge against anyone" (Dinmukhamed Kunaev, from the memoirs "From Stalin to Gorbachev").
1993 The last year was for Kunaev the year when he, as his relatives and relatives figuratively say, "finally was able to breathe freely." The persecution stopped, restrictions on free movement and the ban on wide communication with ordinary people, friends and associates, and journalists were lifted. And the decisive role here was played by the position of President Nazarbayev, whom they met in February 1993. The president simply but weightily made it clear to his overzealous comrades that he considers their behavior inappropriate. Point. So, it was a very eventful year in terms of events, meetings and trips. People went to Kunaev, Kunaev went to people. And so, in August, the 125th anniversary of Mukhamedzhan Tynyshpaev, the first major Kazakh engineer, was celebrated in Sarkand. It was his image that inspired the young Dinmukhamed at one time. So Kunaev could not help coming. During the celebration it was very hot, but Kunaev did not put on his hat, as he was asked to do. He only answered that he would stand before people with his head uncovered.
The next day, August 22, I rested. Rode a little on the boat. Played some billiards. He said that he was a little tired and would go to lie down. After a while, everyone heard a loud scream... Nothing could be done. Heart. In those days (and still, probably), many people asked themselves if it could have been otherwise. And if he had not gone to Sarkand at the height of summer? If the blow had not happened near Sarkand, when only a personal doctor was nearby (Akhat Mulyukov, who had been accompanying Kunaev for many years), but in Alma-Ata? If only we had time to get to the nearest hospital? And you can ask yourself such questions for an infinitely long time and a lot. If not for the death of his wife in 1990 and the wife of his brother Askar, Leyla Mukhtarovna Auezova, in May 1993, which shocked him, broke something, as it always happens when you lose loved ones, people dear to you. If not for the persecution that Dimash Akhmedovich underwent after he was "retired", when he opened newspapers every day with "revealing" articles and headlines, ready for anything. If not for the Alma-Ata mudflow in 1973, which cost him a heart attack a year later. If not for the years in leadership positions and in the party. Yes, in the end, if he just took care of himself and lived a completely different, calm life ... There are always so many of these "ifs" in life. But he did not know how and did not want to live differently. And now he was gone. The once omnipotent leader of the republic, its true, charismatic, as they say now, leader, the Great Kazakh, as many believe, and not only Kazakhs, has passed away.
People who knew Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich, remembering him, always emphasized his human modesty. Real, not ostentatious. "Posts, awards, degrees did not turn my head and could not change the moral qualities that I put above others in my life and work - simplicity, honesty, adherence to principles," Kunaev himself wrote. Here's the story that seems interesting to us. Already in retirement, Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich ordered a new business card for himself, on which, in addition to his name, a single inscription was made - "mining engineer". When relatives saw this business card, they began to ask Kunaev: why is it so, why did he, having every right to do so, not put his doctoral degree and the title of academician there? To which Dimash Akhmedovich answered everyone something like this: "All this is transient, but a mining engineer is for life."
We do not know what is more in this story - the modesty of a person or the pride of a true professional. And someone will think that in such a somewhat paradoxical way (such a "underlining") his wounded pride was manifested. But in any case, it becomes clear what his profession was for Kunaev (he even officially shortened his patronymic "Minliakhmedovich" for reasons of industrial expediency - at that time it was just more convenient). And in any case, it was worthy. And here's another story. In the early 90s, Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich, at the invitation of the general director Marat Radzhibaev, came to the Balkhash mining and smelting plant, where he worked as an engineer before the war. He visited the Kounrad mine, in the workshops, in the quarry, met with the veterans-first builders of Balkhash. The director of the plant, meanwhile, prepared for Dimash Akhmedovich another "meeting with the past." The house in which Kunaev lived in those years was repaired, and a commemorative plaque was installed on the house. And so they arrived at the opening, Kunaev saw the sign, thanked. "Well, how?" Radzhibaev asked him. “Everything is fine, beautiful,” Dimash Akhmedovich replied. “There is only one “but”, Marat, this is not my house. Mine is nearby,” Kunaev added and smiled. During the night, "the same house" was repaired, and the sign was hung up. And they say that this "confusion" aroused in him no less good, warm feelings than the "gift" itself.
Kunaev really was different. Principled, honest, modest in everyday life ... When necessary - flexible, tough, domineering. That is why the stories from his life, real and invented by the people, are so different. Even during his lifetime, half-stories, half-legends began to appear. For example, they said that if Kunaev was driving to a meeting with people that was supposed to take place in the open air, no matter how heavy the rain was at that time, it stopped as soon as Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich got out of the car. Or here's another story about rain. About how in a downpour, on his way to work, he simply gave a lift to an unfamiliar kid with a violin in his ZIL. And then such a real story, acquiring new details, eventually turned into a "story with a log" that Lenin carried on a subbotnik, and two hundred or three hundred people helped him in this at the same time, no less. And even the death of Dinmukhamed Kunaev has already acquired a variety , often just wild details told by "eyewitnesses".
Someone says that it happened while boating. For some, it happened while hunting. Well, someone "saw with my own eyes" how he was bitten by a poisonous snake. As they say, no comment. But the case, which will be discussed, was in fact. It was told to us by Ermek Bekmukhamedovich Serkebaev. It was in 1987, in Alma-Ata, at a session of the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR. By that time, Kunaev had already been removed from almost all posts and deprived of almost all powers. And now, the assembled vote for his exclusion from the members of the Presidium ... Serkebaev at the end of the meeting, walking down the aisle and "not noticing anyone around from excitement," he suddenly felt that someone took him "gently by the hand." It was Kunaev. “Yermek, don’t you notice me anymore?” Dimash Akhmedovich asked him, without becoming instead of “already” to say “too”. “What are you, what are you, I still love you and I don’t change my opinion towards you,” he answered, and together they left the hall. In the lobby, around Kunaev, a vacuum seemed to have formed. He was standing alone, and then Serkebaev, noticing this, approached him with another person, who at first did not really want this, but, apparently, for a moment overcame this feeling in himself. For some time they stood together, talking . At the same time, Kunaev tried to act as if nothing was happening. And then Serkebaev was pulled aside by some woman, supposedly a journalist. As it turned out later, she was simply sent in order to deprive Dimash Akhmedovich and this society. In general, according to Yermek Bekmukhamedovich, what was done then with Kunaev, “it was a nightmare!” Such is the price of deposed greatness and human gratitude.
For example, he was very fond of hunting. Hence his passion for collecting weapons. And it was a real hobby, unlike the well-known collection of lighters, which was started more by chance than by inner impulse: it just somehow happened that Dimash Akhmedovich was presented with several lighters at once. The irony of fate - the lighters were preserved, but the authorities in 1987 forced him to hand over the unique samples of cold steel and firearms (leaving only three copies). Yes, they never returned it. And he also loved Alma-Ata very much and did not spare money for its development and improvement. And not because it was the capital, but because he was a real Alma-Ata, "a native of Verny," as he himself writes. And then, in the 80s, huge money was spent on the construction of Alma-Ata, it happened that it was irrational. And because of these cost overruns, Kunaev periodically had problems with Moscow, right up to the analysis in the Central Committee. Well, love always has to be fought for. But what a city it has become!
Our city at all times had its own unique flavor, today, unfortunately, somewhat lost (although the current younger generation is unlikely to agree with us on this). So, the "Kunaev" Alma-Ata is a whole era, which many who lived here then remember with nostalgia. And even today Almaty is no longer the same as it was in the 80s and early 90s. But much (both good and bad) is still preserved. And this "much" is the personal merit of Kunaev. And one more love of Dimash Akhmedovich cannot be ignored. It was a very personal feeling and we didn't put it in the headline. Throughout his life, Dimash Akhmedovich carried love for Zukhra Sharipovna, "friend and wife", "a sensitive, attentive and charming person", with whom "we lived 50 years, 6 months and two days," as he wrote in his memoirs. And if Alma-Ata is his first love, then his wife is the biggest.
"Continent" continues the "Big Faces" column opened in 2001. As we have already written, its heroes will be politicians and businessmen, religious and public figures, people of science and art, culture and sports, and many others - all those who are famous for something or interesting in some way. But a special case - those who are no longer with us. This year we are celebrating the 90th anniversary of not just a Big Face, but a man who rightfully deserved the love and respect of the people of Kazakhstan. Our Face - Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunaev. Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich had two dreams. The first is to see Kazakhstan independent. And the second is to see Kazakhstan in the 21st century ... There was a time when it was officially impossible to write about Kunaev in the republic or openly say anything bad or critical. Not because he didn’t have one in principle, but because they simply wouldn’t give it. But there were other times when they talked about Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich and wrote only in this way - with solid "black colors".
After that, several years passed, and he himself spoke about himself and his time. What else can be added to this? Full name: Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunaev. Date of birth: January 12, 1912. Place of birth: the city of Verny (Alma-Ata). Education: in 1936 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold, specialty - mining engineer. deposits of Kazakhstan"), Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR (1952). Scientific works: the main works are devoted to the theory and practice of open-pit mining. In general, about 200 scientific and journalistic works have been published. Stages of professional and party career: 1936-1939 - drilling machine operator, foreman, shift engineer, site manager, shop manager, chief engineer, director of the Kounrad mine. 1939 - Deputy chief engineer and head of the technical department of the Altaipolimetall plant (Ust-Kamenogorsk). 1939-1942 - director of the Leninogorsk (Ridder) mine, director of the Leninogorsk mine administration. Since 1939 - a member of the CPSU (until 1952 - the CPSU (b)). Didn't leave the party. 1942-1952 - Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Council of People's Commissars) of the Kazakh SSR. 1952-1955 - President of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. Since 1953 - Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. 1955-1960 - Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR. Since 1956 - Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU. 1960-1962 - 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. Since 1962 - Member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. 1962-1964 - Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR. 1964-1986 - 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. Since 1966 - a candidate member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Since 1971, he has been a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU. 1986 - retirement. Awards and distinctions: first award - medal "For Labor Distinction", three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1972, 1976, 1982), awarded 8 Orders of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner of Labor, Order of the October Revolution, Order of the Patriotic War I degree and medals. Awards of foreign states: Order of Sukhe Bator (Mongolia), Order of Knight's Honor (Czechoslovakia), medals of Bulgaria, Cuba, North Korea. Literary works: memoirs "About my time" (1992) and "From Stalin to Gorbachev" ( 1994). Hobbies and hobbies: books, hunting, collecting weapons and lighters. Life credo: "While there is still strength, while the heart beats, the human soul is young." A short preface about figures of this magnitude can always say something, remember something new, suggest, or even come up with. That's why they are Big Faces - the position obliges. Speaking of Dinmukhamed Kunaev, we will not invent, we will not prove or, on the contrary, refute something. There are things that are indisputable. No matter how anyone treats the Soviet past in general and Kunaev's party past in particular, he will forever remain the Man who built our House, our Kazakhstan. We will be objected that this was not under him, but under the Soviet regime and the CPSU, in the system of which everyone was just cogs, executors of the will of the Center. But his personal contribution to the development of the republic (its industrial and raw material base, construction infrastructure, science and culture) still remains invaluable. Many of his human qualities are indisputable, and the main ones, in our opinion, are deep decency, devotion to ideals and love for Kazakhstan. But there are not so unambiguous and positive episodes in his career. The same problem of Aral or Balkhash is the reverse side of our industrial and urban development. Or some appointments of Kunaev. It is often said about this or that political and statesman that he was a "good man", but his inner circle "abused his trust." So it was in Kazakhstan. And no one removed Dinmukhamed Kunaev for the mistakes of this responsibility, including himself. And there are also moments that only he knew the truth about. So, already being retired, in 1990 he refused to be elected to the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR, saying that he had left Big Politics. But who knows what he thought in that last for himself
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